Wednesday, 31 August 2016

Generalization and Specialization


Generalization and Specialization

Generalization, Specialization and Aggregation in Database management system are abstraction mechanisms used to model information. The abstraction is the mechanism used to hide the redundant details of a set of objects. For example, vehicle is abstraction that includes the type’s jeep, car and bus.
So, the two abstraction mechanisms used to model information:
Generalization (Specialization is the reverse process of Generalization)
The process of extracting common characteristics from two or more classes and combining them into a generalized superclass, is called Generalization.
Specialization is the reverse process of Generalization means creating new sub-classes from an existing class.
Let’s take an example of Bank Account; A Bank Account is of two types –Saving Account and Current Account. Saving Account and Current Account inherits the common/ generalized properties like Account Number, Account Balance etc. from a Bank Account and also have their own specialized properties like interest rate etc.

 A more general class is referred to as a ‘super class’ while a specialized class is called as a ‘sub class’. The relationship between these two classes is called generalization.
 It is represented as follows :

 In the above example we have a general class ‘Vehicles’ with its specialized sub classes, ‘ TwoWheeler’,’ThreeWheeler’ and ‘FourWheeler’. We show generalization between these classes using a hollow arrow head arrows between the sub class and the   super class such that the arrow head points towards the general class.
 Ellipses (…) indicate incomplete generalization and possibility of addition/representation of
 More sub classes. Consider,

 If a text label is placed on the hollow arrowhead then it indicates that all the following subclasses share that property.

Tuesday, 30 August 2016

Software Testing


Software testing is about looking at product from all the ends, point of views and testing it with respective expectations. It is difficult to develop the right mind set and to test the product with different aspects.
By testing the software we find and track the bugs and by suggesting new ideas for improvement, we contribute for betterment of the product, so surely Software testing is the most satisfactory job.

Understanding product and testing the same considering different factors of functionality, performance, security, GUI and many others, is not that easy task. Also now days, it is becoming more complex due to mobile applications and many others new gadgets. In fact it is the big challenge to cover the vast range of available devices and to check the behavior of application keeping the goal of response time and usability. 

As software testing includes understanding requirements, preparation of test plan, test strategies and test cases, test cases execution, reporting of tests performed and test summary. This Cycle continues till the last phase of product delivery.
The ultimate purpose of software testing is not about finding mistakes or bugs but to make quality product.

A good software tester must understand what customer wants, should study about market and analyze latest trends. Software tester must provide relevant information to the client; interpret the importance of the product for the customer. Ultimately put on shoes of customer and work on product. Software testing is about understanding importance of test cases and tweaking them as per the requirement and analyzing results to provide best results. It is not just about mechanically executing 50 test cases per day.
By testing the software, tester finds bugs and analyzes product from different perspectives, which helps to improve  the product and which helps to grow the confidence about developed product.

Yes, software testing is the most interesting job because it throws challenges to you for every moment. You have to broaden your mind to understand something, to find out how it should work and how it should not, to study the normalized behavior, to improve the analysis power, learning new tools and to implement the learning in real life.

As a software tester, most of the time you are pushed up to complete the task early. Estimated time for the product is mostly taken by development and fixing the defects found in initial rounds of testing. Ultimately you are left with very less or no time and with big responsibility of signing the product as “TESTED”. So to handle these situations you have to understand priority of the work and convey accordingly.

If you love to face the challenges and you have the confidence to tackle those challenges, then Software testing is the right field for you.

Monday, 29 August 2016

Story Behind


Everyone knows portal for job. We daily visit this website, but have you ever notice what actual story behind the portal?  Just for curiosity read the below interesting blog which can defiantly motivate you to start your own business. was launched in March 1997 by Sanjeev Bikhchandani  who is also founded two companies - Info Edge and Indmark. As of March 31, 2010 had a database of about 27 million registered job seekers, and over 80,000 live job listing from Commercial Customers.
Since Sanjeev Bikhchandani  was in school, His idea was very clear to start his own business. Hence he decided to do MBA; his dream was to do work with few of companies and take experience and then start his own business. He believes that there are three important key pointers for successful business.

·         New Idea
·         Management
·         Employee
With the help of these three key pointers, one can achieve the dream which you want.
As he decided, he started working at HMM, came to Delhi and within a year-and-a-half he quit the Job.

 In October 1990, Sanjeev were operating from the servant’s quarter which was above the garage at home and rent was paid by his father Rs 800.
When Sanjeev thought about the digitization, he went to one of his friend who was very good in programming and floats his idea. Since Sanjeev didn’t have the money and he gave him a 7% share in the company and started working on the project.
They both went to the Central News Agency and get some 29 newspapers with appointment ads. They built the structure of the database and inserted the jobs information into the database. Now, they were having 1000 jobs into their database. After this, they worked on the verticals and the navigation they want – and he built the Website — “Naukri” — in one week.  
 This is very interesting story of spotting an opportunity and chasing it with guts, risk determination, hard work and bit of luck. is India’s number one job portal at a time when there is a serious scarcity of employable people in just about every sector of business and industry.

If you like the blog do share and comment. We will be happy to share the new motivational blog to you. Thank you for reading. Have Good Day.

Thursday, 25 August 2016

Selector in Jquery

The use of jQuery is to create much easy to use JavaScript in website.

What Already Know?
Before you jQuery, basics following elements
• JavaScript

What is jQuery?
jQuery is a lightweight, "write less, do more", JavaScript library.
It takes a lot of common thinks that require many lines of JavaScript code to complete, and get together them into methods that can be called with a single object.
It also simplifies a lot of the complicated code from JavaScript, like AJAX calls and DOM manipulation.
The jQuery library contains the following things:
• HTML/DOM manipulation
• CSS manipulation
• HTML event methods
• Effects and animations
• Utilities

Why jQuery needed?
There are lots of other JavaScript frameworks present in market, but jQuery seems to be the most popular in market, and also the most extendable easy to use also.
Many of the famous companies’ uses jQuery, like:
• Google
• Microsoft
• Netflix

Will be jQuery work in all browsers?
The jQuery team knows all issues about cross-browser  CBT, and so they are constructed in that way.
jQuery code or libraries will run exactly same in all  browsers, including Internet Explorer 6!
With jQuery HTML elements are selected and performed "actions" on them.

JQuery Syntax:-
syntax is:-

A “$” sign to defines jQuery
A (selector) used to find HTML elements
A jQuery action() tells action to be performed on elements


$(this).hide() - hide current element.
$("p").hide() - hide all <p> elements.
$(".abc").hide() - hide all elements with class="abc".
$("#xyz").hide() - hide element with id="xyz".

The Document Ready Event in jQuery:-
You may know that all jQuery methods in example, are inside a document ready event:
    // jQuery methods go here...


This is to prevent any jQuery code from running before the document is finished loading (is ready).
It is good practice to wait for the document to be fully loaded and ready before working with it. This also allows you to have your JavaScript code before the body of your document, in the head section.
Here are some examples of actions that can fail if methods are run before the document is fully loaded:

Trying to hide an element that is not created yet.
Trying to get the size of an image that is not loaded yet.

Tuesday, 23 August 2016

Multithreading in java


Multithreading is a process of executing (running) multiple threads simultaneously.
Thread is basically a lightweight sub-process, a smallest unit of process. Multiprocessing and multithreading are used to achieve multitasking.
We use multithreading than multiprocessing because threads share a common memory area. context-switching within the threads takes less time than process.
Java Multithreading is mostly used in application, games, animation etc.

Advantage of Multithreading :-
1) It doesn't block the user because threads are independent and we can perform multiple tasks at       
    same time.
2) we can perform many tasks together so it saves time.
3) Threads are independent so it doesn't affect other threads if exception occur in a single thread
    is stop working.

Multithreading is a process of executing (running) multiple tasks at the same time (simultaneously). You use Multithreading to utilize the CPU. Multithreading can be achieved by two ways.
• Process-based.
• Thread-based.

1) Process-based -
• Each and every process has own address in memory i.e. each process allocates separate
   memory address.
• Process is heavyweight.
• communication within the process is high.
• Switching from one process to another require some time.

2) Thread-based -
• Share the same memory space.
• Lightweight.
• Communication within the thread is low.

Thread in java -
A thread is a lightweight so it does not require separate memory area.
A small unit of processing.
It is executed separately from other thread, it does not affected other thread when one is stop because of exception.
Thread is run independently,
Thread shares a common memory area within the application.

How to create Thread
Example :-
1) Creating thread by using Thread Class

class MultiThread extends Thread

    void run()
        System.out.println("your first Thread is running Now "); 
    public static void main(String []args)
        // Creating the object of test class
        MultiThread  obj1=new MultiThread  ();

2) Creating thread by using Runnable interface

class MultiThread2 implements Runnable
     public void run()
        System.out.println("Thread is created using Runnable Interface ..."); 
     public static void main(String []args)
        // class object creation 
        MultiThread2  obj2=new MultiThread2 (); 
        //Passing class object to Thread class
        Thread t1 =new Thread(obj2);

Monday, 22 August 2016



eHour is an open source, web based time tracking tool eHour makes the time your people spend on projects visible and available as simple and user friendly.

The primary objective of this tool is to keep time tracking as simple and user friendly as possible while still being very effective at measuring and reporting the amount of time your team spends on project.
Tool is having some main features:
• Create multiple projects per customer, assign multiple users to the same project.
• Create default projects to which all users should be assigned (days off, sick leave, etc..) so
   you can keep track of those hours as well extensive reporting.
• Configurable localization.
• eHour is available in English, Dutch, French, Italian, German and Polish languages.
• This tool has ability to lock timesheets.
• It provides excel export of all the reports.
• Automatic reminders facility is provided by email.
• It has webbased user interface and no software’s needs to be installed on desktop machines.
• We can keep full control over all the data.

After the installation, eHour is started automatically. When your computer starts, eHour starts automatically as well since it's registered as a service.

eHour is indeed an important tool used by most of the organizations and company to track the time taken by a particular team, or an individual employee on a particular project.

Friday, 19 August 2016

New Tags in HTML5


New Elements in HTML5

New Structural Elements in HTML5 :-
New elements are adding in HTML5 for better document structure.

Following tags are offering in Html5 ...
1.<article> :-       This tag is used to add article in the document
2.<aside> :-         By using this tag we can define content aside from the page content
3.<bdi> :-             By using this tag we can define a part of text that is formatted in a different 
                             direction from other text
4.<details> :-       This tag is used to defines additional details that the user can view or hide
5.<dialog> :-        This tag is used to defines a dialog box or window
6.<figcaption> :-  This tag is used to provide caption for a <figure> element
7.<figure> :-         This tag is used to defines self-contained contents i.e. code , diagrams, photos etc.
8.<footer> :-         This tag is used to defines a footer for the document or a section
9.<header> :-        This tag is used to defines a header for the document or a section
10.<main> :-         This tag is used to defining the main content of a page
11.<mark> :-         This tag is used to defines marked or highlighted text
12.<menuitem> :-  This tag is used to defines menu item that the user can invoke from a popup menu
13.<meter> :-         This tag is used to defines a scalar measurement within a known range (a gauge)
14.<nav> :-            This tag is used to defining navigation links in page
15.<progress> :-    This tag is used to defines the progress of a task
16.<rp> :-              This tag is used to defines what to show in browsers that do not support ruby  

17.<rt> :-            This tag is used to defines an explanation/pronunciation of characters (for East
                            Asian typography)
18.<ruby> :-        This tag is defining a ruby annotation (for East Asian typography)
19.<section> :-    This tag is used to defines a section in the document
20.<summary> :- This tag is used to defines a visible heading for a <details> element
21.<time> :-         This tag is used to defines a date/time
22.<wbr> :-          This tag is used to defines a possible line-break

New Form Elements in HTML5:-
1.<datalist> :-    This tag is used to defines pre-defined options for input controls
2.<keygen> :-    This tag is used to defines a key-pair generator field (for forms)
3.<output> :-    This tag is used to defines the result of a calculation

New Input Types in HTML5:-
• Color
• week
• Date
• tel
• datetime
• datetime-local
• email
• month
• number
• range
• search
• time
• url

New Input Attributes in HTML5:-
• autocomplete
• step
• autofocus
• placeholder
• form
• pattern (regexp)
• formaction
• formenctype
• formmethod
• list
• Formnovalidate
• min and max
• formtarget
• height and width
• multiple
• required

New Attribute Syntax in HTML5:-
1. Empty                :-  <input type="text" value="Praveen" disabled>
2. Unquoted           :-  <input type="text" value=sharma>
3. Double-quoted   :-  <input type="text" value="Praveen Sharma">
4. Single-quoted    :-   <input type="text" value=' Praveen Sharma '>

Monday, 15 August 2016

Independence Day स्वतंत्रता दिवस (15th of August, 2016)


Independence Day in India is observed on 15th of August every year and it is a National Holiday commemorating the Nation’s freedom from British Empire on 15th of August, 1947. Independence resulted in partition of India in which the British Empire was divided into India and Pakistan respectively but partition accompanied by violent riots and casualties’ numbers were high, and the displacement of nearly 15 million people due to violence. Jawaharlal Nehru who became the first Prime Minister of India raised the Indian National Flag above the Lahore Gate of the Red Fort in Delhi. Since then every year on 15th August the Prime Minister of India has hosted the National Flag followed by a speech to all the fellow citizens. On the eve of Independence Day, the President of India delivers the "Address to the Nation" in which the prime minister highlights the achievements of the previous year’s, raises important issues and concerns and calls for future development needed for betterment of the country. He pays tribute to the leaders of the Indian independence movement. Twenty-one gun shots are fired in honor of the solemn occasion. The Flag is hosted along with the National Anthem “Jana Gana Mana” and the speech is followed by march pass of the Indian Armed Forces and paramilitary forces.

Following is the details of the programme for 15th of August, 1947

    Time                    Activity
08.30 AM    Swearing in of the governor general and ministers at Government House
09.40 AM     Procession of ministers to Constituent Assembly
09.50 AM    State Drive to Constituent Assembly
09.55 AM     Royal Salute to Governor General
10.30 AM    Hosting of National Flag at Constituent Assembly
10.35 AM    State Drive to Government House
06.00 PM    Flag Ceremony at India Gate
07.00 PM    Illuminations
07.45 PM    Fire Works Display
08.45 PM     Official Dinner at Government House
10.15 PM    Reception at Government House

Few Events and Movements that were involved in the Independence Act:
1.    Partition of Bengal
2.    Hindu-German Conspiracy
3.    Champaran and kheda
4.    Rowlett Committee
5.    Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
6.    Fourteen Point of Jinnah
7.    Purna Swaraj
8.    Salt March
9.    Gandhi Irwin Pact
10.    Round Table Conferences
11.    Quit India
12.    Bombay Mutiny
13.    Provisional Government of India
14.    Independence Day

A common holiday is observed throughout India with Flag Hoisting ceremonies in schools and Colleges, parades and cultural events across the institutes.  Schools and government offices also distribute sweets to all the individuals with the feeling of Freedom.

Friday, 12 August 2016

Software Project Management


Software project management is that the art and science of designing and leading computer code comes. It's a sub-discipline of project management during which computer code comes square measure planned, enforced, monitored and controlled.

A code Project is that the complete procedure of code development from demand gathering to testing and maintenance, administrated consistent with the execution methodologies, in a very fixed amount of your time to attain supposed software package.

Need of Software project management
Software is claimed to be associate intangible product. code development may be a quite all new stream in world business and there’s little expertise in building code merchandise. Most code merchandise square measure tailor created to suit client’s necessities. the foremost vital is that the underlying technology changes and advances therefore oft and quickly that have of 1 product might not be applied to the opposite one. All such business and environmental constraints bring risk in code development therefore it's essential to manage code comes with efficiency.

Time Cost Quality
The image on top of shows triple constraints for code comes. it's a vital a part of code organization to deliver quality product, keeping the price among client’s budget constrain and deliver the project as per regular. There square measure many factors, each internal and external, which can impact this triple constrain triangle. Any of 3issue will severely impact the opposite 2.
Therefore, code project management is crucial to include user necessities alongside budget and time constraints.

Software Project Manager
A package project manager may be a one that undertakes the responsibility of death penalty the package project. package project manager is totally tuned in to all the phases of SDLC that the package would undergo. Project manager might ne'er directly involve in manufacturing the tip product however he controls and manages the activities concerned in production.

A project manager closely monitors the event method, prepares and executes varied plans, arranges necessary and adequate resources, maintains communication among all team members so as to handle problems with value, budget, resources, time, quality and client satisfaction.

Let us see few responsibilities that a project manager shoulders -
1)Managing People
   • Act as project leader
   • Liaison with stakeholders
   • Managing human resources
   • Setting up reporting hierarchy etc.

2) Managing Project
   • Defining and setting up project scope
   • Managing project management activities
   • Monitoring progress and performance
   • Risk analysis at every phase
   • Take necessary step to avoid or come out of problems
   • Act as project spokesperson

Thursday, 11 August 2016

The layered approach to software development


The layered approach to software development
->There is a two layered approach and a three layered approach towards software development.

Two layered approach :
Here the business logic of the system is close bound with the screens.
Thus with every interface we need to re-create the business logic which runs the screen.
Any change to the business logic must be reflected in every screen which deals with that business logic.
This makes the two layered approach rigid and non-reusable across different systems .

 Three layered approach :
Isolates the interface from the data.

Consists of following layers :
a. Business Layer :
Contains all the objects from the real word and which need to be represented within our system.

Responsible for understanding the interactions between these objects and learn the business processes through these interactions.Objects are not responsible for the way the data is displayed. Thus they have no knowledge of any interface.

->Objects should not know about the data location details. They should only know which routines to call in order to get or process the data that they want for business process.
Captures the static and dynamic relationships between the business objects.
Consider an example where we are building a system to process the invoices of customers. The invoice object should not be concerned with how the details of the invoice are shown on the screen or how they are captured. Also it should not be concerned with where the details are stored and how. It should only know which methods to invoke to verify the data and process it further.
Once an invoice is generated dynamically the quantity of items     should be checked and reduced. And each customer should be allowed to have more than one invoice thus showing static relationship between the two classes of our system.

->These objects are identified during the object –oriented analysis phase.

b. User Interface Layer :
->This layer consists of objects which are viewed by the user.
->This is also called as ‘View Layer’.

->It is responsible for responding to user interaction. Which means that the objects in this layer should have the necessary logic to handle various actions like button click, mouse click, selection of an option from a list, entering text in a text box, etc coming from the user.
It is also responsible for displaying the business objects. Thus how the data is captured and how it is displayed to the user. Maintaining uniformity while displaying business objects across platforms, etc is handled by this layer.   
The objects in this layer are identified in the object-oriented design phase.
It takes inputs from the use cases made in object-oriented analysis phase.

c. Access Layer :
This layer contains objects that know how to interact with the objects that hold data. Such objects could be either databases, mainframe, files, etc.The objects in this layer are responsible firstly for translating the request for data into the syntax which will be understood by the data source.

Secondly these objects need to convert the incoming data from the data source into a format which will be as per the business objects and pass those objects bask to the business layer.
These objects are identified during the object-oriented design phase.